Hanyoyi 10 da za a gane yadda ake tauye ‘yan cin ‘yan jarida a yanayi na annobar COVID-19 – CPJ

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A wannan yanayi na COVID-19, ‘yanci, dama da walwalar ‘yan jarida ya ragu matuka.

Ga Dalilai 10 da za a maida hakali akai, Daga Katherine Jacobsen na Kwamitin Kare ‘yancin ‘yan jarida.

Annobar COVID-19 ya kawo rudani matuka a harkar kula kiwon lafiyar ma’aikatan asibiti, barazana ga tattalin arzikin kasashen duniya da kuma jefa kasashen cikin rashin kwanciyar hankali. Haka zalika ya sauya yanayin da ‘yan jarida ke aikin dauko labarai a dalilin yadda wasu kasashe ke yin amfani da annobar wajen muzguna wa kamfanonin yada labarai.

Za a samu tsagaitawar fadawa cikin hadari nan da wasu ‘yan lokaci: Maganin rigakafin cutar zai samarwa mutane kariya matuka ciki har da ‘yan jarida daga yada cutar ko kuma kamuwa da cutar. Sai dai kuma wasu matakai da aka kirkiro domin yaki da ‘yan cin samo bayanai, da gangar, wato da sanin mahukunta ko kuma ba da sani zai iya ci gaba har bayan haka, kamar yadda masana suka ce.

Akwai yiwuwar yadda ake tunkarar coronavirus zai sauya dadadden tsari na aikin jarida zuwa wani yanayi da ba a san yadda za ta kasance ba, kamar yadda ya auku a lokacin da aka kai hare-haren 11 ga watan Satumbar 2001, da yayi sanadiyyar fadada dokar dakile ayyukan ta’addanci a duniya – wanda a dalilin haka ya bada dama ana garkame ‘yan jarida a gidajen kaso har zuwa yanzu.

Tauye hakkin ‘yancin ‘yan jarida da Kungiyar Kare ‘Yan Jarida CPJ ta tsara a dalilin wannan annoba za a iya karkasasu zuwa gida 10 domin bin su sau-da-kafa. (Tare da misalai da aka kawo)

1 – Dokoki kan dakile yada “labaran karya”

Wannan annoba ta ba gwamnatoci damar kirkiro sabbin dokoki domin hukunta duk wanda ya yada “Labaran Karya” ko kuma ya “ fadin abinda ba haka ba “—kuma hakan ya basu damar kirkiro wasu sabbin dokokin a duk lokacin da suka bukaci haka. A cikin shekara bakwai da suka wuce an samu karin ‘yan jaridan da aka daure a gidajen kaso a dalilin wai yada “labaran karya” ko kuma “fadin abin da ba haka ba”, kamar yadda binciken CPJ ya nuna.

Wani babban Lawyer, mazaunin kasar Birtaniya (U.K) Carlos Gaio dake aiki a Media Legal Defence Initiative, ya shaida wa CPJ cewa gwamnati za ta ci gaba da kirkiro dokoki domin dakile yada labaran karya game da kwayoyin cutar, hakan zai zama matsalar gaske wajen aikin dauko labarai ga ‘yan jarida da kuma masu binciken kwa-kwaf don gano gaskiyar lamari.

“Wannan lamari na da matukar muhimmanci da rudani da za a ce an kauda fuska a kai kuma akwai tashin hankali a ciki matuka.” Gaio ya ce.
Tabbas yada labarai karya babbar matsala ce, amma kuma wadannan dokoki sun baiwa gwamnatoci dama da zabin wacce labari ce ba ta gaskiya ba, hakan zai sace guiwar ‘yan jaridan dake aikin bincike mai zurfi wajen samo labarai.
A kasar Amurka, shugaban Kasar Donald Trump a lokutta da dama kan muzantawa ‘yan jaridar dake dauko labaran COVID-19 sannan yana yi musu lakani da “labaran Karya” muddun bai amince da labarin ba. Abin da kungiyar CPJ ke gani cin fuska ne ga gidan jaridar da kuma saka kokwanto a zukatan mutane. Kuma hakan samar wa shugabani dake mulkin kama karya ne dama su ci mutuncin ‘yan jaridar kasar su.

• Ranar 18 ga watan Maris , kasar Afrika Ta Kudu ta saka dokar hukunta duk wanda ya ruwaito abinda ba haka ba game da annobar ta hanyar saka tara masu tsauri da zaman kurkuku – Wannan doka da gwamnatin kasar ta saka abin kyamata ne ganin ita kasar abar koyi ce a wannan yankin.

• A ranar 6 ga watan Afrilu a Puerto Rico , yankin Amurka, ta saka dokar haramta wa gidajen yada labarai saka ko wani irin labarin da ba haka ba a kafafen su. Duk wanda ya karya wannan doka zai iya zaman gidan kaso na wata shida da taran da zai kai $5000
2 – Daure ‘yan jarida
Garkame ‘yan jarida a gidajen kaso hanya ce da gwamnatocin dake mulkin kama karya ke amfani da wajen muzantawa da rufe bakin ‘yan jaridan dake bin diddigin labarai, daukowa da yada su. Akalla ‘yan jarida 250 ne ke daure a gidajen kaso a fadin duniya, a kirgen kungiyar CPJ na shekara-shekara da ta yi watan Disemba.

A wannan yanayi na annobar COVID-19, daure mutum a gidan kaso zai iya zama masa hukuncin kisa; ana garkame ‘yan jarida a wuraren da basu da tsafta yadda ya kamata sannan a saka su tare da mutane cunkushe da kila ma wasun su sun kamu da cutar. CPJ da wasu kungiyoyi sama da 190 sun yi kira da a saki duka ‘yan jaridar da aka garkame a dalilin aikin su.

2 – Duk da haka ana ci gaba da kama ‘yan jarida

• Ranar 23 ga watan Afrilu a kasar Indiya, mahukunta a Tamil Nadu sun kama shugaban kamfanin jaridar SimpliCity dake a yanar gizo. Sun tuhumeshi da karya dokar annoba da cututtuka da wasu hukunce-hukunce. Hakan ya biyo bayan rahotannin da shafin ta ruwaito kan yadda gwamnati ke yin almundahana da sama da fadi da kayan abincin da aka samar don talakawa a lokacin Kulle.

• Sojoji a kasar Jordan sun tsare wasu ‘yan jarida biyu dake aiki a talbijin din Roya TV ranar 10 ga Afrilu kan dauko wa da yada rahotan wani ma’aikaci yana bayyana ra’ayin sa game da yiwuwar tabarbarewar arzikin kasar a dalilin kulle da aka saka a kasar.

• A ranar 14 ga Afrilu mahukunta a kasar Somali sun tsare editan Goobjoog Media Group bias zargin wani ‘dan jarida da yada labaran karya a shafin Facebook game da yadda kasar ta tunkari yakin dakile annobar cewa hakan cin mutuncin shugaban kasar ne.

3 – Janye damar ‘yancin magana

Wasu gwamnatocin sun janye damar ‘yancin magana da aka saka a wannan lokaci da ake fafutikar dakile annobar kundin tsarin mulkin kasar Liberiya ta samar da kariya ga ‘yancin magana musammamn a lokacin da ake cikin wani tashin hankali ko bukata. Sannan kuma sai an samu amincewar shugaban kasa wanda shine ke da ikon dakatar wa ko kuma canja wani sace na dokar ‘yancin magana a irin wannan yanayi da aka kakaba dokar ko ta kwana irin na 11 ga Afrilu.

• A ranar 16 ga Maris kasar Hunduras ta saka dokar ko ta kwana na wucin gadi a kasar da hakan ya sa ta janye wasu sassa a kundin tsarin mulkin kasar da ya hada da sashen da ya ba da damar ‘yancin magana (Sai dai kuma gwamnati ta maido da wannan sashe kwanaki kadan bayan ta janye.)

4 – Saka takunkumin tace jaridu, na yanar gizo da wadanda ba haka ba

Mahukunta a kasashe da dama sun dakatar da bugawa da raba jaridu wai duk a wani salo na dakile yaduwar cutar COVID-19. A wasu kasashen mahukunta sun rufa wasu shafukan yada labarai na yanar gizo da kuma cire wasu rubuce-rubuce masu zurfi na bin diddigi.

• Kasashen Jordan, Oman, Morocco, Yemen da Iran duk sun dakatar da bugawa da raba jaridu a kasashen su a watan Maris.

• Kasar Tajikistan ta rufe jaridar Akhbor mai zaman kanta a dalilin yin rahoto mai zurfi akan gwamnati.

• Shugaban hukumar kula da kafafen yada labarai na Kasar Rasha Roskomnadzor ya umarci gidan radiyon Ekho Moskvy to cire wani tattaunawa da tayi da wani masanin cututtuka, kuma ta tilasta wa shafin Govorit Magadan ta cire wani rubutu akan mutuwar mutane a wani yankin kasar a dalilin ciwon sanyin hakarkari, pneumonia.

5 – Muzantawa da cin zarafin ‘yan jarida, na yanar gizo da na waje

Jami’an gwamnati da wasu mutane kan yi wa ‘yan jarida barazanar cin zarafin su da muzanta musu a dalilin yin rahoto mai zurfi akan wannan annoba. A wuraren da abin yayi tsaurin gaske, abin ya zama abin tashin hankali matuka.

• Shugaba kasar Chechnya Ramzan Kadyrov ya yi wa wata wakiliyar jaridar Novaya Gazeta barazana mai tsaurin gaske, a dalilin wani rubutu da tayi ranar 12 ga Afrilu cewa ‘yan kasar sun daina dauko labarai game da alamun Coronavirus saboda tsoron kada a yi musu lakabi da “’yanTa’adda.”

• A ranar 2 ga Afrilu, an ci zarafin wasu ‘yan jaridar kasar Haiti a ofishin Humkumar Zama dan Kasa don suna yin bincike mai zurfi bias wani zargi da aka yi cewa hukumar bata bin dokar yin nesa-nesa da juna a ma’aikatar.

• Sojojin kasar Ghana sun ci zarafin wasu ‘yan jarida a kokarin tabbatar da dokar hana walwala da aka saka a kasar saboda annobar a watan Afrilu.

6 – Abubuwan da ake bukata na bada damar yin aiki da ‘yancin walwala

Mahukunta sun yi wa ‘yan jarida iyaka da damar watayawa, ta yadda za su iya shiga ko ina su dauko labarai a lokacin da aka saka dokar hana zirga-zirga da ko kuma hana su shiga asibitoci domin samun sahihan bayanai game da kiwon lafiya. A wasu lokutta a kan ba ‘yan jarida damar shiga wasu wuraren amma kuma sai wadanda gwamnati ta amince da kuma ta ke so su samu irin wannan dama.

Binciken CPJ ya nuna cewa hakan yaba da daman yakice manya manyan gidajen yada labarai da suka yi fice da kuma fitattun marubuta da za su fede biri daga kai har bindi a labaran su.

• A ranar 23 ga watan Maris, ‘yan sanda a kasar Indiya sun ci zarafin wasu ‘yan jarida hudu a wurare uku dabam-dabam, a Hyderabad da Delhi duk kuwa a hanyar su ta zuwa aiki ko kuma komawa gidajen su daga wuraren aiki a lokacin da da aka saka dokar zaman Kulle, wato zaman Gida Dole a kasar, duk da kuwa mahukunta sun ce wannan doka ba zai yi aiki akan ‘yan jarida ba.

• Nigeria required journalists to carry a valid identification card to move around certain locked down areas, including the capital Abuja, and designated only 16 journalists as allowed to enter the president’s villa.

• A Najeriya kuwa, gwamnatin kasar ta umarci kowani dan jarida ya tabbata ya na tare da da katin shaidar wurin aikin sa a ko ina yake, har a Babban Birnin Kasar, Abuja. Sannan kuma ‘yan jarida 16 ne kacal gwamnati ta amince su rika dauko labarai daga fadar Shugaban Kasa.

7 – Dakile hanyoyin damar samun bayanai

Dokokin damar samun bayanai da ya ba dan jarida damar tunkari kafofin gwamnati domin samun bayanai a rumbun bayanai na gwamnati an dakatar da ita. Komai yanzu da dan jarida zai bukata an maida su a yanar gizo wadda ma ba komai ne dan jarida zai samu ba daga gwamnati.

A kasar Amurka kuwa yadda Shugaban kasar Trump ke aibata ‘yan jarida ba abin alfahari da bane sannan baa bin a kwaikwaya bane ga wasu mahukuntan.
Gaio ya shaida wa CPJ cewa lallai fa irin haka zai ci gaban da aukuwa “ Gwamnati za ta garkame duk wata hanya da jami’anta za su samar da bayanai idan aka bukata kai tsaye. Sannan kuma samar da ire-iren wadannan bayanai zai rika daukan lokaci mai tsawon kuma zai yi wahalar gaske ga duk wani dan jarida ya bugi kirji yace zai shiga jama’a kai tsaye domin samun bayanai saboda tsoron kada ya kamu da cuta.” Cewar Gaio

• A ranar 23 ga Maris, shugaban kasar Brazil jair Bolsonaro, ya saka hannu a wani dokar dakatar da wa’adin dole mahunkuntan ma’aikatun gwamnati su samar da bayanai ‘yan jarida kan bukata kan bukata daga wurin su, sannan kuma da soke damar kalubalantar kin haka a kotu.

• Gwamnoni da shugabannin gundumomi a kasar Amurka, sun kirkiro wata hanyar muzanta wa ‘yan jarida musamman a wajen halartar tarukan ganawa da ‘yan jarida. A ranar 28 ga Maris Gwamnan Florida ya hana wata ‘yar jarida halartar taron manema labarai don ta tambaye shi kan tsarin da aka yi wajen sa mutane su yi nesa-nesa da juna.

8 – Kora da takunkumin hana biza

Domin a canja yadda gwamanti ke tunkarar yaki da COVID-19 wasu kasashen basu maraba da bakin ‘yan jarida ba wanda a wasu wuraren sukan samu damar da ‘yan jaridar kasashen ba su samun damar dauko muhimman labarai.

• Kasashen Chana da Amurka sun dade suna sa-insa a tsakanin juna game da baiwa ‘yan jarida dama a kasashen su. A dalilin haka, kasar Chana ta fatattaki wakilan jaridar Wall Street Journal domin mai da martini ga wani rahoton da aka wallafa a jaridar game da annobar COVID-19. A watan Maris , kasar Amurka ta ce za a ba ‘yan jarida 100 ne kacal daga kasar Chana bizan shiga kasar. Ita ma kasar Chana ta janye a bizar wasu wakilan jaridun kasar Amurka 13 da suka hada da wakilan jaridar The New York Times, The Washington Post da The Wall street Journal.

• A ranar 15 ga watan Maris, kasar Masar, wato Egypt ta kori wakiliyar jaridar Guardian Ruth Michaelson da ta nuna rashin amincewa da alkaluman da kasar ke badawa game da annobar.

9 – Kulawa, sa-ido da gano wadanda suka yi mu’amula da masu dauke da cutar

Gwamnatocin kasashen duniya na kokarin kula, bibiyar wuraren da mutane ke amfani da wayoyin hannu, da kuma yin gwaji sanna da kirkiro sabbin fasaha domin iya gano yaduwar COVID-19, rahotanni sun nuna cewa irin wannan sa ido zai iya kawo cikas ga bayanna sirri na mutum. An kirkiro wannan fasaha ne ba tare da akwai wani tsari na inda aikin sa zai tsaya ba, wato iyaka, kuma zai iya ci gaba da aiki har bayan an ci galabar wannan annoba.

“ A duk lokacin da aka fada cikin matsanancin damuwa akan yi rige-rige wajen kirkiro fasaha da zai samar da damar iya shawo kan wannan matsala da ya bijiro sai dai kuma ya dace gwamnati ta maida hankali wajen sa ido da irin fasahar da ake kirkirowa idan irin haka ya bijiro. Mun ga irin haka a lokacin hari 9-11, to fa ina ganin irin haka ya sake bijirowa yanzu,” Inji Carrie DeCell, Ma’aikaci Knight First Amendment Institute in New York. “ Abin da za a iya kau da wa ido a lokaci irin haka, gwamnatoci ba za su lamunta ba muddun suka iya gano bakin zaren game da wannan annoba kuma ta yi sauki a nan gaba.”

Shi ko David Maass, Shugaban masu binciken bin diddigi a Francisco-based Electronic Frontier Foundation, ya ce ya yi matukar yarda cewa muddun aka samar wa jami’an tsaro sabuwar fasaha da za su yi aiki da a irin wannan yanayi zai yi wuyan daske a iya karbewa a hannun su. “Ga shi muna gani suna amfani da shi a dalilin wannan kwayar cuta, babu wanda ya san me zai faru nan gaba.”

Kamfanonin sadarwa a kasashen Italy, Jamus, Austria na karkata na’urorin sanin inda mutum yake zuwa ga ma’aikatan kiwon lafiya, duk da dai kintatatwa suke yi; Gwamnatocin kasashe kamar su Koriya ta Kudu da Afrika Ta Kudu suna amfani da wadannan na’urori ne wajen bin diddigin inda wayoyin mutane suke, haka kuma a kasar Isreal an amince wa kamfanin tsaro ta rika bibiya da dauko bayanan miliyoyin mutane dake amfani da wayoyin hannu.

10 – Matakan Gaggawa

Gwamnatocin dake mulkin kama karya za su iya amfani da wannan dama domin muzantawa da haramta ayyukan tattara bayanai, kamar yadda CPJ ta tsara a baya.

• A ranar 30 ga Maris, majalisar kasar Hungary ta ba firaye Ministan kasar, wanda shine shugaban kasar Viktor Orbán damar ya yi mulkin kasa yadda yake so a kan kowa da komai.

A ranar 26 ga Maris kasar Thailand ta saka dokar da ya ba gwamnati damar gyara rahotannin da ta ga bai yi mata ba sannan kuma dokar ta ba da damar a hukunta ‘yan jarida ta hanyar wata dokar kasar da ya bada damar garkame mutum har na tsawon shekara biyar a gidan kaso.

Ganin yadda kasashe da dama har yanzu na cikin dokar ta baci , hakan ya ba mahukuntan kasashen damar gudanar da mulki yadda suka so—kuma gashi yanzu ne ma cutar ke dada tsananta a wasu kasashe masu tasowa – akwai dokoki masu tsauri dake tafe.

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