Gaskiyar Lamari Akan Ra’ayoyi Da Fahimtar Malamai Game Da Ranar Haihuwa Da Mutuwar Manzon Allah (SAW), Daga Imam Murtadha Gusau

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Da Sunan Allah, Mai Rahama, Mai Jin Kai

Assalamu Alaikum

Ya ku al’ummar Annabi Muhammad (SAW), yau an wayi gari Musulmi a duniya da kuma nan gida Najeriya, a koda yaushe, musamman idan watan Rabi’ul Awwal ya tsaya, suna tattauna wata mas’ala muhimmiya, wadda wani lokaci ta kan jawo hayaniya da cece-kuce, tare da batanci da cin mutuncin juna, kai har da yanke wa juna hukuncin cewa su ‘yan wuta ne, ko kuma kafirta juna, musamman idan wai sun yarda da cewa ranar 12 ga watan Rabi’ul Awwal, ita ce ranar da aka haifi Manzon Allah (SAW).

Wannan mas’ala ita ce ta, wai shin a wane wata ne da rana aka haifi Manzon Allah (SAW), kuma a wane wata ne da ranar da ya rasu.

Game da wannan muhimmiyar mas’ala, mai cike da sarkakiya da rudani, ni dai abunda zan ce, kuma tare da fata da rokon Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala yayi man muwafaka, shine:

Da farko, ya kamata mu fahimci cewa, masana tarihi na da da na yanzu, sun yi sabani game da ainihin wata da kuma ranar haihuwar Manzon Allah (SAW). Wannan sabani na su abu ne dadadde, ba sabon al’amari bane. Don haka shi yasa ma wasu malamai suke ganin cewa, babu wata hujja mai karfi da ta ke tabbatar da cewa lallai ga ainihin rana da watan da aka haifi Manzon Allah (SAW). Wasu Malamai suka ce, abun da ya kawo haka kuwa shine, saboda a lokacin da aka haifi Manzon Allah (SAW), babu wanda yasan me zai zama a duniya, kuma babu wanda yasan matsayin sa, shi yasa ba’a mayar da hankali wurin sanin takamaiman rana da watan haihuwar sa ba (SAW).

Babban Malami, kuma masanin tarihi, Dakta Muhammad at-Tayyib an-Najjar (rahimahullah) ya fada, a cikin littafin sa mai albarka, mai suna, ‘AL-QAWLUL MUBIN FI SIRATI SAYYIDIL MURSALIN, shafi na 78, cewa:

“Hakika sanadiyyar abun da ya jawo wannan sabanin ra’ayin shine, saboda lokacin da aka haifi Manzon Allah (SAW), babu wanda yayi zato ko tsammanin cewa zai cimma wannan matsayi na rayuwa a cikin wannan al’ummah. Shi yasa ba wanda ya mayar da hankali gare shi a farkon rayuwar sa. Bayan Allah Madaukaki ya kaddari wannan Manzo na sa (SAW) ya isar da sakon sa zuwa ga bayin sa, bayan ya cika shekaru arba’in da haihuwa, sai mutane suka fara mayar da hankali gare shi, suka fara tattara dukkan wasu bayanai, da duk wani abu da suka sani game da rayuwar Annabi (SAW). Kuma sannan babban abun da ya taimaka masu a wannan muhimmin aiki shine, abun da shi kan sa Annabin (SAW) ya ba da labari na abun da ya sani game da abubuwan da suka faru a lokacin haihuwar sa, da kuma abubuwan da aka samu na bayanai daga wurin Sahabban sa, da sauran masanan da suke da masaniya game da abun da ya faru lokacin haihuwar ta sa (SAW). A wannan lokaci ne Musulmi suka fara tattarawa tare da kokarin ajiye duk wani abun da suka ji na rayuwar sa, da nufin isar da shi ga wadanda za su biyo bayan su.”

Na biyu, ya kamata mu sani, daga cikin al’amurran da Malamai suka yi ijma’i game da haihuwar Manzon Allah (SAW) shine, fassara rana da shekarar da aka haife shi (SAW):

1. Game da shekarar: Malamai suka ce ita ce shekarar giwaye. Ibn al-Qayyim (rahimahullah) yace:

“Babu sabani a wurin Malamai baki daya, cewa an haifi Manzon Allah (SAW) ne a garin Makkah, kuma a cikin shekarar giwaye.” [Duba Zadul Ma’ad fi Hadyi Khairil Ibad, mujalladi na 1, shafi na 76]

Kuma Sheikh Muhammad Ibn Yusuf as-Salihi (rahimahullah) yace:

“Ibn Is’haq (rahimahullah) yace: an haife shi ne a shekarar giwaye.”

Imam Ibn Kathir ma yace:

“Abu ne sananne, wannan shine ra’ayin jumhur (wato mafi yawan Malamai), cewa an haife shi ne a shekarar giwaye.”

Sheikh Ibrahim Ibn Munzir al-Hizami, Babban Malamin Imamu Bukhari, yace:

“Wannan shine ra’ayin da babu wani malami da yake da shakku akai, cewa an haife shi ne (SAW) a shekarar giwaye. Khalifah Ibn Khayyat, Ibn al-Jazzar, Ibn Dihyah, Ibn al-Jawzi da Ibn al-Qayyim, duk sun tabbatar da cewa wannan ijma’i ne.” [Duba Subulul Huda war-Rashad fi Sirati Khairil Ibad, mujalladi na 1, shafi na 334 da 335]

Sannan Dakta Akram Diya’ al-Umari (rahimahullah) yace:

“A gaskiya, dukkanin ruwayoyin da suka nuna sabanin haihuwar sa (SAW) cikin shekarar giwaye, suna da matsala; akwai ruwayoyin da suka nuna an haife shi ne shekaru goma, ko ashirin, ko arba’in, bayan shekarar giwaye. Amma jumhur, wato mafi yawan Malamai, sun tafi akan cewa an haife shi ne shekarar giwaye. Kuma ko binciken da aka yi na kwanan nan, wanda Musulmi da wadanda ba Musulmi ba, masana masu bincike suka gabatar, sun tabbatar da hakan. Suka ce shekarar giwayen ma tayi daidai da shekarar 570 CE ko 571 CE.” [Duba As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah as-Sahiha, mujalladi na 1, shafi na 97]

2. Game da ranar da aka haife shi (SAW):

Ranar da aka haife shi (SAW) ita ce litinin. An haife shi ne ranar litinin, Manzancin sa (wato wahayi) ya fara a ranar litinin, kuma ya rasu ranar litinin.

An ruwaito daga Abu Qatadah al-Ansari (Allah ya yarda da shi), yace:

“An tambayi Manzon Allah (SAW) game da azumin da yake yi na ranar litinin, sai yace: “Ranar litinin ne aka haife ni, kuma ita ce ranar da aka fara yi mani wahayi.” [Muslim ne ya ruwaito shi]

Imam Ibn Kathir (rahimahullah) yace:

“Wadanda suka ce an haifi Manzon Allah (SAW) ranar Jumu’ah, 17 ga watan Rabi’ul Awwal sun yi kuskure. Al-Hafiz Ibn Dihyah ya ba da labarin haka daga abun da ya karanta a cikin littafin Shi’ah, mai suna: I’lamul wara bi A’lamul Huda. Ya bayar da labarin cewa wannan fahimta mai rauni ce, saboda ta saba wa nassi.” [Duba As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah, mujalladi na 1, shafi na 199]

Na uku, game da bangaren da ake da sabanin Malamai sosai a cikin sa, shine watan da aka haife shi da kwanan watan. Akwai ra’ayoya da yawa, kamar haka:

1. Wasu Malamai sun ce an haife shi ne ranar biyu ga watan Rabi’ul Awwal.

Imam Ibn Kathir (rahimahullah), yace:

“Wasu Malamai sun ce an haife shi ne ranar biyu ga watan Rabi’ul Awwal. Ibn Abdul-Barr ne ya fadi haka a littafin sa mai albarka, wato al-Isti’ab, sannan kuma an ruwaito daga Imam al-Waqidi, daga Abu Ma’ashar Nujaih Ibn Abdur-Rahman al-Madani.” [Duba As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah, mujalladi na 1, shafi na 199]

2. Wasu Malamai kuwa suka ce an haife shi ne ranar takwas ga watan Rabi’ul Awwal.

Imam Ibn Kathir (rahimahullah) yace:

“Wasu sun ce an haife shi ne ranar takwas ga watan Rabi’ul Awwal. An bayar da wannan labari ne daga Imam al-Humaidi daga Ibn Hazm, sannan kuma daga Malik, daga Aqil, Yunus Ibn Yazid and wasunsu, daga Imam az-Zuhri daga Muhammad Ibn Jubair Ibn Mut’im. Kuma Imam Ibn Abdul-Barr yace, Malaman tarihi sun tabbatar da ingancin hakan; kuma al-Hafizul Kabir, Imam Muhammad Ibn Musa al-Khawarizmi ya fadi haka, kuma Imam al-Hafiz Abul Khattan Ibn Dihyah yace wannan shine zancen da ake kallo a matsayin zama mafi inganci, a cikin littafin sa mai suna, at-Tanwir fi Mawlidil Bashirin-Nazir.” [Duba As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah, mujalladi na 1, shafi na 199]

3. Wasu Malamai sun ce an haife shi ne ranar goma ga watan Rabi’ul Awwal.

Imam Ibn Kathir (rahimahullah), yace:

“Wasu sun ce an haife shi ne ranar goma ga watan Rabi’ul Awwal. Ibn Dihyah ne ya bayar da wannan labari a cikin littafin sa, haka Imam Ibn Asakir ya fadi haka daga Abu Ja’afar al-Baqir. Haka an ruwaito haka daga Mujahid daga ash-Sha’abi.” [Duba As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah, mujalladi na 1, shafi na 199]

4. Wasu Malamai kuwa suka ce an haife shi ne ranar sha biyu ga watan Rabi’ul Awwal.

Imam Ibn Kathir (rahimahullah), yace:

“Wasu sun tafi akan an haife shi ne ranar sha biyu ga watan Rabi’ul Awwal. Imam Ibn Is’haq (rahimahullah), ne ya tabbatar da haka. Kuma Imam Ibn Abi Shaibah ya bayar da wannan labari a cikin littafin sa mai albarka, mai suna, ‘Musannaf’ daga Affan daga Sa’id Ibn Mina, cewa Jabir da Ibn Abbas sun ce: Manzon Allah (SAW) an haife shi ne a shekarar giwaye, ranar litinin, sha biyu ga watan Rabi’ul Awwal; ranar litinin ne ya fara karbar wahayi, ranar litinin ne aka yi Isra’i da Mi’raji da shi, yayi hijirah ranar litinin, sannan ya rasu ranar litinin. Kuma wannan shine ra’ayi mafi shahara kamar yadda mafi yawancin Malamai suka tafi akai. Kuma Allah shine mafi sani.” [Duba As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah, mujalladi na 1, shafi na 199]

Ban da ma wadannan ra’ayoya, akwai ra’ayin wasu Malamai da ke cewa, an haife shi ne a cikin watan Ramadan ko watan Safar ko kuma wani watan.

‘Yan uwa masu albarka, yanzu dai abun da ya bayyana a gare mu, fili, karara, game da ainihin ranar da aka haifi Manzon Allah (SAW), bisa zance mafi inganci, sai in ce, ranar tabbas Malamai sun yi sabani game da hakikanin ta, amma dai sai duk mu yarda kuma mu amince cewa, ranar tana nan tsakanin takwas zuwa sha biyu (8-12) ga watan Rabi’ul Awwal. Wasu Malamai Musulmi masana ilimin lissafi da Malamai masana ilimin taurari ma sun tafi akan cewa ranar litinin da aka haifi Manzon Allah (SAW), ta fado ne daidai tara ga watan Rabi’ul Awwal, a bisa ingantaccen lissafi. Ana iya cewa wannan kuma wani ra’ayi ne na wasu Malaman, kuma tabbas shima akwai kanshin gaskiya a cikin sa. Kuma idan anyi lissafi, za’a ga cewa yayi daidai da 20th ga Afrilu 571 CE. Wannan kuma shine ra’ayin da mafi yawancin marubutan zamani game da rayuwar Manzon Allah (SAW) suka tafi akai, cewa shine mafi inganci, kamar Farfesa Muhammad al-Khudari da kuma Sheikh Safi’ur Rahman al-Mubarakfuri.

Imam Abul Qasim as-Suhaili (rahimahullah), yace:

“Masana ilimin lissafi sun ce, an haife shi ne a cikin watan Afrilu, kuma ranar sha biyu ga watan.” [Duba littafin Ar-Rawdul Unuf, mujalladi na 1, shafi na 282]

Farfesa Muhammad al-Khudari (rahimahullah) yace:

“Masanin ilimin taurarin nan, Dan kasar Misrah, wato Mahmoud Basha, wanda kwararre ne a fannin ilimin taurari da lissafi, yayi bincike, kuma ya rubuta littafai masu tarin yawa, yace: ranar litinin ne da safe, tara ga watan Rabi’ul Awwal, wanda yayi daidai da 20th Afrilu, 571 CE. Shekara daya bayan shekarar giwaye. Kuma an haife shi ne a gidan Abu Talib, a Shi’abu Banu Hashim.” [Duba littafin Nurul Yaqin fi Siratu Sayyidil Mursalin, shafi na 9, da kuma littafin ar-Rahiq al-Makhtum, shafi na 41]

Na hudu, shine game da kwanan watan da Manzon Allah (SAW) ya rasu. Lallai babu sabanin ra’ayi a wurin Malamai cewa, ranar litinin ne Annabi (SAW) ya rasu. Ra’ayin da aka ruwaito daga Ibn Qutaibah, da ke cewa ya rasu ne ranar laraba, baya da inganci. Malamai suka ce watakila abun da yake nufi shine an binne Manzon Allah (SAW) ranar laraba, wanda wannan kuwa gaskiya ne.

Game da shekarar rasuwar sa kuwa, babu sabani a wurin Malamai cewa ya rasu ne a shekara ta sha daya bayan hijirah (11 AH).

Game da watan da ya rasu kuwa, shima babu sabanin Malamai cewa ya rasu ne a cikin watan Rabi’ul Awwal.

Game da cewa nawa ne ga wata kuwa, akwai sabanin Malamai game da haka:

1. Jumhurun Malamai (wato mafi yawancin Malamai) sun tafi akan ya rasu ne ranar sha biyu ga Rabi’ul Awwal.

2. Imam al-Khawarizmi yana kan ra’ayin cewa ya rasu ne ranar daya ga Rabi’ul Awwal.

3. Imam Ibn Kalbi da Imam Abu Makhnaf suna da ra’ayin cewa ya rasu ne ranar biyu ga Rabi’ul Awwal. Imam as-Suhaili ya karkata ga goyon bayan wannan ra’ayi, kuma Imam al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar (rahimahullah) yana ganin cewa wannan shine ra’ayi mafi inganci.

Amma ra’ayi mafi shahara shine, wanda mafi yawancin Malamai suka tafi akai, cewa Annabi (SAW) ya rasu ne ranar sha biyu ga watan Rabi’ul Awwal, kuma a shekara ta sha daya bayan hijirah (11 AH). [A duba littafin ar-Rawdul Unuf, na Imam as-Suhaili, mujalladi na 4, shafi na 439 da 440; da As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah, na Imam Ibn Kathir, mujalladi na 4, shafi na 509; da Fat-hul Bari na Imam al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar, mujalladi na 8, shafi na 130]

Allah shine mafi sani.

Don haka ya ‘yan uwa, tun da dai har akwai maganganu da sabani da ra’ayoyan Malamai akan wannan mas’ala, to ina ganin sam bai dace a kafirta Musulmi, ko ace zai shiga wuta saboda wai yace shi ya yarda da cewa an haifi Manzon Allah (SAW) ne ranar sha biyu ga watan Rabi’ul Awwal. Idan an yi haka a gaskiya an tsananta, an zafafa kuma an wuce-gona-da-iri.

Ina rokon Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala ya shirye mu, yasa mu nisanci kafirta ‘yan uwan mu Musulmi ko kai su wuta, amin.

Nagode,

Dan uwan ku, Imam Murtadha Muhammad Gusau, Okene, Jihar Kogi, Najeriya. Za’a iya samun Imam a adireshi kamar haka: gusaumurtada@gmail.com ko kuma 08038289761.

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